Essentially an enormous German emesis basin. Note the large-diameter discharge pipe and the convenient handholds on the wall. Not sure if the metal plate is a headrest (?), but it seems to contain a motion detector for the flushing.
Discussion thread at the whatisthisthing subreddit:
"These make sense in bars but they actually have these in the jockey quarters at Churchill Downs for the jockeys to vomit before racing in the Kentucky Derby to further minimize their weight. Seriously."Wikipedia page on Speibecken (auf Deutsch). (auf English)
"Mostly in every brewery in Germany. And some bars do have it. In breweries you normally do a guided tour and afterwards you are allowed to drink as much as you want for a certain time. So that’s when the vomit „urinal“ comes in handy."